On the Behavior of Black Bursts in Tick-Synchronized Networks
Technischer Bericht 377/10, Fachbereich Informatik, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, 2010
In wireless networks, many existing protocols suﬀer from destructive collisions of simultaneously sent frames, inﬂuencing their quality-of-service and their appli- cation in real-time scenarios. With black bursts, this paper investigates a rela- tively unexplored method for the collision-protected transmission of information in wireless networks. Although such transmissions are slower and less eﬃcient than transmissions with regular frames, their robustness enables advanced and deterministic protocols, e.g., synchronization with deterministic convergence de- lay, deterministic medium arbitration, or negative-acknowledgments of broadcast transmissions. This paper explores black burst-based transmissions theoretically as well as experimentally, and analyzes their requirements regarding time. In par- ticularly, we extend previous work by presenting detailed derivations of formulae used by two black burst-based transfer protocols, called cooperative transfer and arbitrating transfer. By means of two experiments, we evaluate the detection of black bursts based on the Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) mechanism and show their applicability under real-world conditions. Finally, we discuss diﬀerences in the transmission ranges of regular MAC frames and black bursts and show how to bring them in line.
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