Implementation and Experimental Validation of Timing Constraints of BBS

M. Engel, D. Christmann, R. Gotzhein

In Bhaskar Krishnamachari, Amy L. Murphy, Niki Trigoni (Eds.): Wireless Sensor Networks - 11th European Conference, EWSN 2014, Oxford, UK, February 17-19, 2014, Proceedings, Springer LNCS 8354, 84-99


BBS (Black Burst Synchronization) is a synchronization protocol for multi-hop wireless ad-hoc networks providing deterministic upper bounds for tick offset and convergence delay. General bounds can be determined analytically, and depend on parameters such as maximum network diameter and maximum clear channel assessment delay. From the general bounds, concrete bounds can be derived by inserting hardware-specific values. Certainly, it is crucial that the platform-specific values are accurate, and that all sources of delay are considered. In this paper, we report on the experimental validation and derivation of timing constraints of BBS for an implementation on the Imote 2 platform, using a Software Defined Radio (SDR) for some measurements. In particular, we identify sources of delay that have an impact on the upper bounds for tick offset and convergence delay, and devise and conduct experiments to measure these delays. As it turns out, the timing constraints for BBS reported in the original work need several refinements. Also, the jitter introduced by optimization techniques of the hardware platform like instruction and data caches needs careful consideration. We have applied these insights gained from the experiments to improve the design and implementation of BBS.


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